One of the most frequent constructive activities in civil constructions is the earth movements necessary to construct engineering works, esplanades to locate socio-economic works, sports fields and others, being of great importance to realize with adequate precision the volumes of earth to move.
Before the appearance of the programs for the calculation of earth movement this was done manually, being very cumbersome despite the simplicity of the methods of calculation.
With the advent of new technologies, such as computing, programs began to be developed for the calculation and tabulation of earth-moving results, based on traditional methods.
The evolution of these computer programs has allowed the civil engineer to have powerful tools, not only for calculations of earth movement, but also to support the drawing, to analyze variants in less time, to offer possibilities of work in 3D , etc.
The objective of this work in general is the analysis of the method used by the software AutoCAD LAND DESKTOP for the calculation of the earth movement.
Different methods are used to determine the volumes of earthmoving, which are classified as: Approximate and Exact.
As the “accuracy” of calculation methods in earth moving activities is known to be relative, generally the absolute magnitude of the error is negligible when compared to the enormous work volumes, ie the relative error (( R) in general is negligible, however, there is the previous classification to try to fit the different stages of the project: technical project (where approximate ones should be used) and executive (where the so-called exact ones should be used)
Methods to be used at the level of Preliminary Project or Technical Project:
1. Compass method: determining the area of the bases by this graphical method.
2. Method of the Red Square:
Methods to be used at the level of the Executive Project:
1. Assign known geometric figures (trapezoids, rectangles, triangles, etc.) to the cross-sectional areas of the bases (in m2) and finally calculate the volume (in m3) by multiplying by the distance (in m) Which separates them by the area of the same (m2).
2. Using the Planimeter: using this instrument, areas of the sections represented in scale (1: 100 or 1: 200, usually) in m2 are determined and finally the volume is calculated by multiplying by the distance that separates them, usually 20 meters .
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